Preview

Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика

Расширенный поиск

Антитромботическая терапия в пожилом и старческом возрасте: согласованное мнение экспертов Российской ассоциации геронтологов и гериатров и Национального общества профилактической кардиологии

https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-2847

Полный текст:

Аннотация

В данном документе обсуждаются особенности АТТ у лиц пожилого и старческого возраста в различных клинических ситуациях.

Об авторах

О. Н. Ткачева
Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова Минздрава России — ОСП “Российский геронтологический научно-клинический центр”
Россия

Ткачёва Ольга Николаевна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, директор.

Москва.



Н. М. Воробьёва
Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова Минздрава России — ОСП “Российский геронтологический научно-клинический центр”
Россия

Воробьёва Наталья Михайловна — доктор медицинских наук, заведующая лабораторией сердечно-сосудистого старения.

Москва.



Ю. В. Котовская
Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова Минздрава России — ОСП “Российский геронтологический научно-клинический центр”
Россия

Котовская Юлия Викторовна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заместитель директора по научной работе.

Москва.



Н. К. Рунихина
Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова Минздрава России — ОСП “Российский геронтологический научно-клинический центр”
Россия

Рунихина Надежда Константиновна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заместитель директора по гериатрической работе.

Москва.



И. Д. Стражеско
Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова Минздрава России — ОСП “Российский геронтологический научно-клинический центр”
Россия

Стражеско Ирина Дмитриевна — доктор медицинских наук, заместитель директора по трансляционной медицине.

Москва.



С. В. Виллевальде
Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр им. В.А. Алмазова Минздрава России
Россия

Виллевальде Светлана Вадимовна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заведующий кафедрой кардиологии факультета подготовки кадров высшей квалификации Института медицинского образования.

Москва.



О. М. Драпкина
Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр терапии и профилактической медицины Минздрава России
Россия

Драпкина Оксана Михайловна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, член-корреспондент РАН, директор.

Москва.



А. Л. Комаров
Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр кардиологии Минздрава России
Россия

Комаров Андрей Леонидович — доктор медицинских наук, ведущий научный сотрудник отдела клинических проблем атеротромбоза.

Москва.



Я. А. Орлова
Медицинский научно-образовательный центр МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова
Россия

Орлова Яна Артуровна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заведующая отделом возраст-ассоциированных заболеваний.

Москва.



Е. П. Панченко
Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр кардиологии Минздрава России
Россия

Панченко Елизавета Павловна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, руководитель отдела клинических проблем атеротромбоза.

Москва.



Н. В. Погосова
Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр кардиологии Минздрава России
Россия

Погосова Нана Вачиковна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заместитель генерального директора по научно-аналитической работе и профилактической кардиологии.

Москва.



Е. В. Фролова
Северо-Западный государственный медицинский университет им. И.И. Мечникова
Россия

Фролова Елена Владимировна — доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры семейной медицины.

Санкт-Петербург.



И. С. Явелов
Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр терапии и профилактической медицины Минздрава России
Россия

Явелов Игорь Семенович — доктор медицинских наук, руководитель отдела фундаментальных и клинических проблем тромбоза при неинфекционных заболеваниях.

Москва.



Список литературы

1. Nichols M, Townsend N, Scarborough P, Rayner M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:3028-34. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht356.

2. Andreotti F, Rocca B, Husted S, et al.; on behalf of the ESC Thrombosis Working Group. Antithrombotic therapy in the elderly: expert position paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:3238-49. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv304.

3. Aronow WS. Approach to symptomatic coronary disease in the elderly: TIME to change? Lancet. 2001;358:945-6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06111-6.

4. Mari D, Ogliari G, Castaldi D, et al. Hemostasis and ageing. Immun Ageing. 2008;5:12. doi:10.1186/1742-4933-5-12.

5. Dolan G, Neal K, Cooper P, et al. Protein C, antithrombin III and plasminogen: effect of age, sex and blood group. Br J Haematol. 1994;86:798-803. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1994.tb04832.x.

6. Gleerup G, Winther K. The effect of ageing on platelet function and fibrinolytic activity. Angiology. 1995;46:715-8. doi:10.1177/000331979504600810.

7. Wilkerson WR, Sane DC. Aging and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2002;28:555-68. doi:10.1055/s-2002-36700.

8. Sakkinen PA, Cushman M, Psaty BM, at al. Correlates of antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and TFPI in a healthy elderly cohort. Thromb Haemost. 1998;80:134-9.

9. Алёше RA, Coppola R, Potenza I, Mannucci PM. The increase with age of the components of the tissue factor coagulation pathway is gender-dependent. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1995;6:433-7. doi:10.1097/00001721-199507000-00010.

10. Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and cardiac aging: major shareholders in cardiovascular disease enterprises: Part I: aging arteries: a ‘set up' for vascular disease. Circulation, 2003;107:139-46. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000048892.83521.58.

11. Nedic O, Rattan SI, Grune T, Trougakos IP. Molecular effects of advanced glycation end products on cell signalling pathways, ageing and pathophysiology. Free Radic Res. 2013;47(Suppl. 1):28-38. doi:10.3109/10715762.2013.806798.

12. Laurent S. Defining vascular aging and cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens. 2012;30 (suppl.):S3-S8. doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e328353e501.

13. Liochev SI. Reactive oxygen species and the free radical theory of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:1-4. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.02.011.

14. Simmonds MJ, Meiselman HJ, Baskurt OK. Blood rheology and aging. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2013;10:291-301. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1671-5411.2013.03.010.

15. Schmucker DL. Age-related changes in liver structure and function: implications for disease? Exp Gerontol. 2005;40:650-9. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2005.06.009.

16. Cotreau MM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. The influence of age and sex on the clearance of cytochrome P4503A substrates. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44:33-60. doi:10.2165/00003088-200544010-00002.

17. Aymanns C, Keller F, Maus S, et al. Review on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and the aging kidney. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:314-27. doi:10.2215/CJN.03960609.

18. Beaufrere B, Morio B. Fat and protein redistribution with aging: metabolic considerations. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54 (Suppl. 3):S48-S53. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601025.

19. Grandison MK, Boudinot FD. Age-related changes in protein binding of drugs: implications for therapy. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;38:271-90. doi:10.2165/00003088-200038030-00005.

20. McLean AJ, Le Couteur DG. Aging biology and geriatric clinical pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 2004;56:163-84. doi:10.1124/pr.56.2.4.

21. Zamora E, Lupon J, Vila J, et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and prognosis in heart failure: value of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study-4, chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration, and Cockroft-Gault formulas. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1709-15. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.11.066.

22. Karsch-Volk M, Schmid E, Wagenpfeil S, et al. Kidney function and clinical recommendations of drug dose adjustment in geriatric patients. BMC Geriatr. 2013;13:92. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-92.

23. Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N, et al. ESC Scientific Document Group. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS): The Task Force for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2020;42(5):373-498. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa612.

24. Friberg L, Rosenqvist M, Lip GY. Net clinical benefit of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a report from the Swedish atrial fibrillation cohort study. Circulation. 2012;125:2298-307. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.055079.

25. Borre ED, Goode A, Raitz G, et al. Predicting Thromboembolic and Bleeding Event Risk in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review. Thromb Haemost. 2018;118:2171-87. doi:10.1055/s-0038-1675400.

26. Subherwal S, Bach RG, Chen AY, et al. Baseline risk of major bleeding in non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: the CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines) Bleeding Score. Circulation. 2009;119:1873-82. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.828541.

27. Valgimigli M, Bueno H, Byrne RA, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group; ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG); ESC National Cardiac Societies. 2017 ESC focused update on dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease developed in collaboration with EACTS: The Task Force for dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J. 2018;39:213-60. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx419.

28. Ikeda Y, Shimada K, Teramoto T, et al. Low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in Japanese patients 60 years or older with atherosclerotic risk factors: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;312:2510-20. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.15690.

29. McNeil JJ, Wolfe R, Woods RL, et al.; ASPREE Investigator Group. Effect of Aspirin on Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding in the Healthy Elderly. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(16):1509-18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1805819.

30. McNeil JJ, Nelson MR, Woods RL, et al.; ASPREE Investigator Group. Effect of Aspirin on All-Cause Mortality in the Healthy Elderly. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(16):1519-28. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1803955.

31. Zheng SL, Roddick AJ. Association of Aspirin Use for Primary Prevention With Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2019;321:277-87. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.20578.

32. Barbarawi M, Kheiri B, Zayed Y, et al. Aspirin Efficacy in Primary Prevention: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2019;26:283-91. doi:10.1007/s40292-019-00325-5.

33. Abdelaziz HK, Saad M, Pothineni NVK, et al. Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:2915-29. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.501.

34. Mahmoud AN, Gad MM, Elgendy AY, et al. Efficacy and safety of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events: a metaanalysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:607-17. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy813.

35. Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R, et al. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative metaanalysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2009;373:1849-60. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60503-1.

36. Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative metaanalysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ. 2002;324:71-86. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7329.71.

37. Chen DK, Kim JS, Sutton DM. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with ticlopidine use: a report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:311-4. doi:10.1001/archinte.159.3.311.

38. Ibanez B, James S, Agewall S, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2017 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2018;39:119-77. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx393.

39. Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(14):1289-1367. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa575.

40. Knuuti J, Wijns W, Saraste A, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes: The Task Force for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2020;41:407-77. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz425.

41. Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink M-LEL, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2017 ESC Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. Eur Heart J. 2018;39:763-816. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx095.

42. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:494-502. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010746.

43. Chen ZM, Jiang LX, Chen YP, et al. Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366:1607-21. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67660-X.

44. Sabatine MS, Morrow DA, Montalescot G, et al. Angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin versus unfractionated heparin in ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolytics in the CLARITY-TIMI 28 trial. Circulation. 2005;112:3846-54. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.595397.

45. Mauri L, Kereiakes DJ, Yeh RW, et al. Twelve or 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stents. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2155-66. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1409312.

46. Gimbel M, Qaderdan K, Willemsen L, et al. Clopidogrel versus ticagrelor or prasugrel in patients aged 70 years or older with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (POPular AGE): the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2020;395:1374-81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30325-1.

47. Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2001-15. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0706482.

48. Roe MT, Armstrong PW, Fox KA, et al. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes without revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1297-309. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1205512.

49. Roe MT, Goodman SG, Ohman EM, et al. Elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes managed without revascularization: insights into the safety of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy with reduced-dose prasugrel versus standard-dose clopidogrel. Circulation. 2013;128:823-33. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002303.

50. Montalescot G, Bolognese L, Dudek D, et al. Pretreatment with prasugrel in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:999-1010. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1308075.

51. Neumann FJ, Sousa-Uva M, Ahlsson A, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2018 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:87-165. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy394.

52. Husted S, James S, Becker RC, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes: a substudy from the prospective randomized PLATelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012;5:680-8. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.964395.

53. James S, Budaj A, Aylward P, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes in relation to renal function: results from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Circulation. 2010;122:1056-67. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.933796.

54. Montalescot G, van't Hof AW, Lapostolle F, et al. Prehospital ticagrelor in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1016-27. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1407024.

55. James SK, Storey RF, Khurmi NS, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Circulation. 2012;125:2914-21. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.082727.

56. Boersma E, Harrington RA, Moliterno DJ, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2002;359:189-98. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07442-1.

57. Hernandez AV, Westerhout CM, Steyerberg EW, et al. Effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: benefit and harm in different age subgroups. Heart. 2007;93:450-5. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.098657.

58. Ndrepepa G, Kastrati A, Mehilli J, et al. Age-dependent effect of abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary interventions. Circulation. 2006;114:2040-6. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.642306.

59. Mak KH, Effron MB, Moliterno DJ. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/ IIIa receptor antagonists and their use in elderly patients. Drugs Aging. 2000;16:179-87. doi:10.2165/00002512-200016030-00003.

60. Guagliumi G, Stone GW, Cox DA, et al. Outcome in elderly patients undergoing primary coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction: results from the Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications (CADILLAC) trial. Circulation. 2004;110:1598-604. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000142862.98817.1F.

61. Hermanides RS, van Houwelingen G, Ottervanger JP, et al. On-TIME 2 trial investigators. The impact of age on effects of prehospital initiation of high bolus dose of tirofiban before primary angioplasty for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2011;25:323-30. doi:10.1007/s10557-011-6314-8.

62. De Luca G, van't Hof AW, Huber K, et al. Impact of advanced age on myocardial perfusion, distal embolization, and mortality patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors. Heart Vessels. 2013;29:15-20. doi:10.1007/s00380-013-0323-4.

63. Patrono C, Andreotti F, Arnesen H, et al. Antiplatelet agents for the treatment and prevention of atherothrombosis. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:2922-32. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr373.

64. Klimt CR, Knatterud GL, Stamler J, Meier P. Persantine-Aspirin ReInfarction Study. Part II. Secondary coronary prevention with persantin and aspirin. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986;7:251-69. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(86)80489-2.

65. Chesebro JH, Fuster V, Elveback LR, et al. Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin on late vein-graft patency after coronary bypass operations. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:209-14. doi:10.1056/NEJM198401263100401.

66. Lembo NJ, Black AJ, Roubin GS, et al. Effect of pretreatment with aspirin versus aspirin plus dipyridamole on frequency and type of acute complications of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:422-6. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(90)90804-a.

67. Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al.; PEGASUS-TIMI 54 Steering Committee and Investigators. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-800. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1500857.

68. Angiolillo DJ, Patti G, Chan KT, et al. De-escalation from ticagrelor to clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2019;48:1-10. doi:10.1007/s11239-019-01860-7.

69. Koski R, Kennedy B. Comparative Review of Oral P2Y12 Inhibitors. P T. 2018;43(6):352-357.

70. Sibbing D, Aradi D, Jacobshagen C, et al.; TROPICAL-ACS Investigators. Guided de-escalation of antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (TROPICAL-ACS): a randomised, open-label, multicenter trial. Lancet. 2017;390:1747-57. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32155-4.

71. Cuisset T, Deharo P, Quilici J, et al. Benefit of switching dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: the TOPIC (timing of platelet inhibition after acute coronary syndrome) randomized study. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:3070-8. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx175.

72. De Caterina R, Husted S, Wallentin L, et al. Parenteral anticoagulants in heart disease: current status and perspectives (Section II). Position paper of the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis-Task Force on anticoagulants in heart disease. Thromb Haemost. 2013;109:769-86. doi:10.1160/TH12-06-0403.

73. Cohen M, Antman EM, Gurfinkel EP, Radley D. Enoxapa-rin in unstable angina non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: treatment benefits in prespecified subgroups. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2001;12:199-206. doi:10.1023/a:1015259706522.

74. Montalescot G, Zeymer U, Silvain J, et al. Intravenous enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the international randomised open-label ATOLL trial. Lancet. 2011;378:693-703. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60876-3.

75. Montalescot G, White HD, Gallo R, et al. Enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in elective percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1006-17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa052711.

76. Lopes RD, Alexander KP, Marcucci G, et al. Outcomes in elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes randomized to enoxaparin vs. unfractionated heparin: results from the SYNERGY trial. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1827-33. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehn236.

77. Armstrong PW, Chang WC, Wallentin L, et al. Efficacy and safety of unfractionated heparin versus enoxaparin: a pooled analysis of ASSENT-3 and -3 PLUS data. CMAJ. 2006;174:1421-6. doi:10.1503/cmaj.051410.

78. Thomas D, Giugliano RP. ExTRACT-TIMI 25 in perspective: key lessons regarding enoxaparin as an adjunct to fibrinolytic therapy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2009;27:1-10. doi:10.1007/s11239-008-0284-0.

79. Schiele F. Fondaparinux and acute coronary syndromes: update on the OASIS 5-6 studies. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2010;6:179-87. doi:10.2147/vhrm.s6099.

80. Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1464-76. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055443.

81. Budaj A, Eikelboom JW, Mehta SR, et al. Improving clinical outcomes by reducing bleeding in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:655-61. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehn358.

82. Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet J-P, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Task Force for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2016;37:267-315. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv320.

83. Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the OASIS-6 randomized trial. JAMA. 2006;295:1519-30. doi:10.1001/jama.295.13.joc60038.

84. Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, Mehilli J, et al. Bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:688-96. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0802944.

85. Stone GW, Witzenbichler B, Guagliumi G, et al. Bivalirudin during primary PCI in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2218-30. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708191.

86. Steg PG, van't Hof A, Hamm CW, et al. Bivalirudin started during emergency transport for primary PCI. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2207-17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1311096.

87. Shahzad A, Kemp I, Mars C, et al. Unfractionated heparin versus bivalirudin in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (HEAT-PPCI): an open-label, single centre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014;384:1849-58. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60924-7.

88. Lincoff AM, Bittl JA, Harrington RA, et al. Bivalirudin and provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade compared with heparin and planned glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade during percutaneous coronary intervention: REPLACE-2 randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289:853-63. doi:10.1001/jama.289.7.853.

89. Stone GW, McLaurin BT, Cox DA, et al. Bivalirudin for patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2203-16. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa062437.

90. Lopes RD, Alexander KP, Manoukian SV, et al. Advanced age, antithrombotic strategy, and bleeding in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: results from the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:1021-30. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.12.021.

91. Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, Schulz S, et al. Abciximab and heparin versus bivalirudin for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1980-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1109596.

92. Nairooz R, Sardar P, Amin H, et al. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials Comparing Bivalirudin Versus Heparin Plus Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2014;114:250-9. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.04.033.

93. Navarese EP, Schulze V, Andreotti F, et al. Comprehensive metaanalysis of safety and efficacy of bivalirudin versus heparin with or without routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndrome. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;8(1 Pt B):201-13. doi:10.1016/j.jcin.2014.10.003.

94. Apostolakis S, Sullivan RM, Olshansky B, Lip GYH. Factors affecting quality of anticoagulation control among patients with atrial fibrillation on warfarin: the SAMe-TT2R2 score. Chest. 2013;144:1555-63. doi:10.1378/chest.13-0054.

95. Hutten BA, Lensing AW, Kraaijenhagen RA, Prins MH. Safety of treatment with oral anticoagulants in the elderly. A systematic review. Drugs Aging. 1999;14:303-12. doi:10.2165/00002512-199914040-00005.

96. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Aguilar MI. Meta-analysis: antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:857-67. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-146-12-200706190-00007.

97. Garcia D, Regan S, Crowther M, et al. Warfarin maintenance dosing patterns in clinical practice: implications for safer anticoagulation in the elderly population. Chest. 2005;127:2049-56. doi:10.1378/chest.127.6.2049.

98. Hylek EM, Evans-Molina C, Shea C, et al. Major hemorrhage and tolerability of warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2007;115:2689-96. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.653048.

99. Mant J, Hobbs FD, Fletcher K, et al. Warfarin versus aspirin for stroke prevention in an elderly community population with atrial fibrillation (the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Treatment of the Aged Study, BAFTA): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;370:493-503. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61233-1.

100. Eriksson BI, Dahl O, Rosencher N, et al. Dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial. Lancet. 2007;370:949-56. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61445-7.

101. Eriksson BI, Dahl O, Rosencher N, et al. Oral dabigatran etexilate versus subcutaneous enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee replacement: the REMODEL randomized trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:2178-85. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2007.02748.x.

102. Turpie AG, Lassen MR, Eriksson BI, et al. Rivaroxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee arthroplasty: pooled analysis of four studies. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:444-53. doi:10.1160/TH10-09-0601.

103. Raskob GE, Gallus AS, Pineo GF, et al. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip or knee replacement: pooled analysis of major venous thromboembolism and bleeding in 8464 patients from the ADVANCE-2 and ADVANCE-3 trials. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94:257-64. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.94B2.27850.

104. Fuji T, Wang CJ, Fujita S, et al. Safety and efficacy of edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty: the STARS E-3 trial. Thromb Res. 2014;134:1198-204. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.09.011.

105. Fuji T, Wang CJ, Fujita S, et al. Safety and efficacy of edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, for thromboprophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty in Japan and Taiwan. J Arthroplasty. 2014;29:2439-46. doi:10.1016/j.arth.2014.05.029.

106. Schnabel RB, Yin X, Gona P, et al. 50 year trends in atrial fibrillation prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study. Lancet. 2015;386:154-62. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61774-8.

107. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1139-51. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0905561.

108. Eikelboom JW, Wallentin L, Connolly SJ, et al. Risk of bleeding with 2 doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin in older and younger patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial. Circulation. 2011;123:2363-72. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.004747.

109. Lip GYH, Clemens A, Noack H, et al. Patient outcomes using the European label for dabigatran. A post-hoc analysis from the RE-LY database. Thromb Haemost. 2014;111:933-42. doi:10.1160/TH13-09-0734.

110. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:883-91. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1009638.

111. Halperin JL, Hankey GJ, Wojdyla DM, et al. Efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin among elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). Circulation. 2014;130:138-46. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005008.

112. Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. New Eng J Med. 2011;365:981-92. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1107039.

113. Halvorsen S, Atar D, Yang H, et al. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin according to age for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: observations from the ARISTOTLE trial. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:1864-72. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu046.

114. Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C, et al. Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation. New Engl J Med. 2011;364:806-17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1007432.

115. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2093-104. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1310907.

116. Kato ET, Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Edoxaban in Elderly Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5:e003432. doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003432.

117. Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2342-52. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0906598.

118. Schulman S, Kakkar AK, Goldhaber SZ, et al. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or warfarin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014;129:764-72. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.004450.

119. Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, et al. for the REMEDY and the RE-SONATE Trails Investigators. Extended Use of Dabigatran, Warfarin, or Placebo in Venous Thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:709-18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1113697.

120. Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, et al. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2499-510. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1007903.

121. Buller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, et al. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1287-97. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1113572.

122. Weitz JI, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, et al., for the EINSTEIN CHOICE Investigators. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1211-22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1700518.

123. Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, et al.; AMPLIFY Investigators. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:799-808. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1302507.

124. Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, et al.; AMPLIFY-EXT Investigators. Apixaban for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:699-708. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1207541.

125. Buller HR, Decousus H, Grosso MA, et al.; Hokusai-VTE Investigators. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1406-15. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1306638.

126. Mega JL, Braunwald E, Mohanavelu S, et al. Rivaroxaban versus placebo in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46): a randomized, double-blinded, phase II trial. Lancet. 2009;374:29-38. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60738-8.

127. Mega JL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD, et al. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:9-19. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1112277.

128. Руда М. Я., Сыркин А.Л., Панченко Е. П. и др. Резюме совета экспертов, посвящённого обсуждению значения препарата ривароксабан в лечении больных, переживших острый коронарный синдром. Атеротромбоз. 2015;2:86-94. doi:10.21518/2307-1109-2015-2-86-94.

129. Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, et al.; COMPASS Investigators. Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1319-30. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1709118.

130. Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists' (FTT) Collaborative Group. Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomised trials of more than 1000 patients. Lancet. 1994;343(8893):311-22.

131. Verheugt FW. The early risk of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: incidence, mechanisms and possible prevention. J Cardiovasc Risk.1998;5(2):103-8.

132. Keeley EC, Boura JA, Grines CL. Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet. 2003;361:13-20. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12113-7.

133. de Boer MJ, Ottervanger JP, van't Hof AW, et al. Reperfusion therapy in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomized comparison of primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:1723-8. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01878-8.

134. Bueno H, Betriu A, Heras M, et al. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:51-60. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq375.

135. Armstrong PW, Gershlick AH, Goldstein P, et al. Fibrinolysis or primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1379-87. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1301092.

136. Рекомендации ЕОК по ведению пациентов с острым инфарктом миокарда с подъёмом сегмента ST 2017. Российский кардиологический журнал. 2018;23(5):103-58. doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2018-5-103-158.

137. White HD, Braunwald E, Murphy SA, et al. Enoxaparin vs. unfractionated heparin with fibrinolysis for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in elderly and younger patients: results from ExTRACT-TIMI 25. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:1066-71. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm081.

138. Российские клинические рекомендации по диагностике, лечению и профилактике венозных тромбоэмболических осложнений. Флебология. 2010;4(2):2-37.

139. Meyer G, Vicaut E, Danays T, et al. Fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1402-11. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1302097.

140. Российские клинические рекомендации по проведению тромболитической терапии при ишемическом инсульте. Москва. 2015. http://mosgorzdrav.ru/ru-ru/science/default/download/86.html.

141. Chen Y, Li CH, Wang YX, et al. Safety and Effectiveness of Intravenous Thrombolysis with Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator in 80 Years and Older Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015;72:883-8. doi:10.1007/s12013-015-0556-1.

142. Pego PM, Nunes AP, Ferreira P, et al. Thrombolysis in Patients Aged over 80 Years Is Equally Effective and Safe. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;25:1532-8. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.03.007.

143. Sagnier S, Galli P, Poli M, et al. The impact of intravenous thrombolysis on outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke after 90 years old. BMC Geriatr. 2016;16:156. doi:10.1186/s12877-016-0331-1.

144. Arora R, Salamon E, Katz JM, et al. Use and Outcomes of Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients >90 Years of Age. Stroke. 2016;47:2347-54. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.012241.

145. Fried LP, Ferrucci L, Darer J, et al. Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59:255-63. doi:10.1093/gerona/59.3.m255.

146. Ткачева О. Н., Котовская Ю. В., Рунихина Н. К. и др. Клинические рекомендации “Старческая астения”. Российский журнал гериатрической медицины. 2020;(1):11-46. doi:10.37586/2686-8636-1-2020-11-46.

147. Walston J, McBurnie MA, Newman A, et al.; Cardiovascular Health Study. Frailty and activation of the inflammation and coagulation systems with and without clinical comorbidities: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2333-41. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.20.2333.

148. Kim S, Yoon S, Choi J, et al. Clinical implication of frailty assessment in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017;70:1-7. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2016.12.001.

149. Perera V, Bajorek BV, Matthews S, et al. The impact of frailty on the utilisation of antithrombotic therapy in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Age Ageing. 2009;38:156-62. doi:10.1093/ageing/afn293.

150. Induruwa I, Evans NR, Aziz A, et al. Clinical frailty is independently associated with non-prescription of anticoagulants in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017;17:2178-83. doi:10.1111/ggi.13058.

151. Martinez BK, Sood NA, Bunz TJ, Coleman CI. Effectiveness and Safety of Apixaban, Dabigatran, and Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin in Frail Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7:e008643. doi:10.1161/JAHA.118.008643.

152. Lip GYH, Keshishian AV, Kang AL, et al. Oral anticoagulants for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in frail elderly patients: insights from the ARISTOPHANES study. J Intern Med. 2020. doi:10.1111/joim.13140.

153. Prins MH, Lensing AW, Bauersachs R, et al., EINSTEIN Investigators. Oral rivaroxaban versus standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE randomized studies. Thromb J. 2013;11(1):21. doi:10.1186/1477-9560-11-21.

154. Man-Son-Hing M, Nichol G, Lau A, et al. Choosing antithrombotic therapy for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation who are at risk for falls. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:677-85. doi:10.1001/archinte.159.7.677.

155. Rao MP, Vinereanu D, Wojdyla DM, et al. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial. Am J Med. 2018;131:269-75. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.10.036

156. Steffel J, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Edoxaban Versus Warfarin in Atrial Fibrillation Patients at Risk of Falling: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68:1169-78. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.06.034.

157. Orkaby AR, Ozonoff A, Reisman JI, et al. Continued Use of Warfarin in Veterans with Atrial Fibrillation After Dementia Diagnosis. J Am Geriatrics Soc. 2017;65:249-56. doi:10.1111/jgs.14573.

158. Subic A, Cermakova P, Religa D, et al. Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Dementia: A Cohort Study from the Swedish Dementia Registry. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;61(3):1119-28. doi:10.3233/JAD-170575.

159. Fanning L, Lau WCY, Mongkhon P, et al. Safety and Effectiveness of Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs Warfarin in People With Atrial Fibrillation and Dementia. J Am Med Directors Assoc. 2020;21:1058-64. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2019.11.022.

160. Cao L, Pokorney SD, Hayden K, et al. Cognitive Function: Is There More to Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation Than Stroke? J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4:e001573. doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.001573.

161. Horstmann S, Rizos T, Saribas M, et al. Cognitive impairment is not a predictor of failure to adhere to anticoagulation of stroke patients with atrial fibrillation. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;39:325-31. doi:10.1159/000381728.

162. Alexander KP, Brouwer MA, Mulder H, et al. Outcomes of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and multi-morbidity: Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial. Am Heart J. 2019;208:123-31. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2018.09.017.

163. Jaspers Focks J, Brouwer MA, Wojdyla DM, et al. Polypharmacy and effects of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: post hoc analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial. BMJ (Clinical Res. ed). 2016;353: i2868. doi:10.1136/bmj.i2868.

164. Piccini JP, Hellkamp AS, Washam JB, et al. Polypharmacy and the Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin in the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. 2016;133:352-60. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018544.

165. Harskamp RE, Teichert M, Lucassen WAM, et al. Impact of Polypharmacy and P-Glycoprotein- and CYP3A4-Modulating Drugs on Safety and Efficacy of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2019;33:615-23. doi:10.1007/s10557-019-06907-8.

166. Kim IS, Kim HJ, Yu HT, et al. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants with amiodarone, P-glycoprotein inhibitors, or polypharmacy in patients with atrial fibrillation: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiol. 2019;73:515-21. doi:10.1016/j.jjcc.2018.12.018.

167. Vanassche T, Verhamme P, Wells PS, et al. Impact of age, comorbidity, and polypharmacy on the efficacy and safety of edoxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism: An analysis of the randomized, double-blind Hokusai-VTE trial. Thromb Res. 2018;162:7-14. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2017.12.005.

168. Westenbrink BD, Alings M, Connolly SJ, et al. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the RE-LY trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:699-707. doi:10.1111/jth.12874.

169. Jia B, Lynn HS, Rong F, Zhang W. Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of the new anticoagulants versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2014;64:368-74. doi:1097/FJC.0000000000000129.

170. Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2014;383:955-62. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62343-0.

171. Lauw MN, Eikelboom JW, Coppens M, et al. Effects of dabigatran according to age in atrial fibrillation. Heart. 2017;103:1015-23. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2016-310358.

172. Hanon O, Chaussade E, David JP, et al. SAFIR cohort: One-year prospective follow-up of very old and frail patients treated with direct oral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban. Arch Cardiovasc Dis Suppl. 2020;12:115. doi:10.1016/j.acvdsp.2019.09.250.

173. Ng KH, Shestakovska O, Connolly SJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in the elderly: a subgroup analysis from the AVERROES trial. Age Ageing. 2016;45:77-83. doi:10.1093/ageing/afv156.

174. Okumura K, Akao M, Yoshida T, et al.; ELDERCARE-AF Committees and Investigators. Low-Dose Edoxaban in Very Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:1735-45. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2012883.

175. Фибрилляция и трепетание предсердий. Клинические рекомендации Министерства здравоохранения РФ. Год утверждения: 2020. https://library.mededtech.ru/rest/documents/888_20/#Фибрилляция_и_треnетание_nреgсерgий

176. Garcia Rodriguez LA, Marti'n-Perez M, Hennekens CH, et al. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0160046. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160046.

177. Laine L. Review article: gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose aspirin — what's the risk? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24:897-908. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03077.x.

178. Sorensen HT, Mellemkjaer L, Blot WJ, et al. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with use of low-dose aspirin. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:2218-24. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.02248.x.

179. Patrono C, Garda Rodnguez LA, Landolfi R, Baigent C. Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2373-83. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052717.

180. Bhala N, Emberson J, Merhi A, et al. Vascular and upper gastrointestinal effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2013;382:769-79. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60900-9.

181. Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S. Drug drug interactions between antithrombotic medications and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. CMAJ. 2007;177:347-51. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070186.

182. Iwamoto J, Mizokami Y, Saito Y, et al. Small-bowel mucosal injuries in low-dose aspirin users with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:13133-8. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i36.13133.

183. Оганов Р.Г., Симаненков В. И., Бакулин И.Г. и др. Коморбидная патология в клинической практике. Алгоритмы диагностики и лечения. Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика. 2019;18(1):5-66. doi:10.15829/1728-8800-2019-1-5-66.

184. Sostres C, Gargallo CJ, Lanas A. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper and lower gastrointestinal mucosal damage. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15 (Suppl 3):S3. doi:10.1186/ar4175.

185. Gao F, Chen X, Zhang J. Prevalence of gastric and small-intestinal mucosal injury in elderly patients taking enteric-coated aspirin by magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2019:1582590. doi:10.1155/2019/1582590.

186. Tziatzios G, Gkolfakis P, Papanikolaou IS, Triantafyllou K. Antithrombotic treatment is associated with small-bowel video capsule endoscopy positive findings in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2019;64:15-24. doi:10.1007/s10620-018-5292-0.

187. Watanabe T, Sugimori S, Kameda N. et al. Small bowel injury by low-dose enteric-coated aspirin and treatment with misoprostol: a pilot study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:1279-82. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2008.06.021.

188. Freedberg DE, Kim LS, Yang YX. The Risks and Benefits of Long-term Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors: Expert Review and Best Practice Advice From the American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:706-15. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.031.

189. Xie Y, Bowe B, Li T, et al. Risk of death among users of Proton Pump Inhibitors: a longitudinal observational cohort study of United States veterans. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e015735. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015735.

190. Shiraev TP, Bullen A. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review. Heart Lung Circ. 2018;27:443-50. doi:10.1016/j.hlc.2017.10.020.

191. Maggio M, Corsonello A, Ceda GP, et al. Proton pump inhibitors and risk of 1-year mortality and rehospitalization in older patients discharged from acute care hospitals. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173:518-23. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.2851.

192. Tai FWD, McAlindon ME. NSAIDs and the small bowel. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2018;34:175-82. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000427.

193. Washio E, Esaki M, Maehata Y, et al. Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase Incidence of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Induced Small Bowel Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;14:809-15.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2015.10.022.

194. Chen WC, Lin KH, Huang YT, et al. The risk of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in low-dose aspirin users. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017;45:1542-50. doi:10.1111/apt.14079.

195. Tozawa K, Oshima T, Okugawa T, et al. A Randomized, DoubleBlind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Rebamipide for Gastric Mucosal Injury Taking Aspirin With or Without Clopidogrel. Dig Dis Sci. 2014;59:1885-90. doi:10.1007/s10620-014-3108-4.

196. Pittayanon R, Piyachaturawat P, Rerknimitr R, et al. Cytoprotective agent for peptic ulcer prevention in patients taking dual antiplatelet agents: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;34:1517-22. doi:10.1111/jgh.14671.

197. Takeuchi K, Takayama S, Hashimoto E, et al. Effect of rebamipide on gastric bleeding and ulcerogenic responses induced by aspirin plus clopidogrel under stimulation of acid secretion in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;29 (Suppl 4):37-46. doi:10.1111/jgh.12774.

198. Yamashita T, Watanabe E, Ikeda T, et al. Observational study of the effects of dabigatran on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. J Arrhythm. 2014;30:478-84. doi:10.1016/j.joa.2014.02.011.

199. Антитромботическая терапия в кардиологии. Под ред. Е. П. Панченко. М.: ООО “ГРУППА РЕМЕДИУМ”, 2019. с. 256. ISBN:978-5-906499-59-2.

200. Gallagher P, Ryan C, Byrne S, et al. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;46:72-83. doi:10.5414/cpp46072.

201. O'Mahony D, O'Sullivan D, Byrne S, et al. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age Ageing. 2015;44:213-8. doi:10.1093/ageing/afu145.

202. O'Connor MN. Adverse drug reactions in older people during hospitalization: prevalence, risk factors and recognition. Unpublished MD thesis. University College Cork, 2013.

203. Wehling M. Drug therapy in the elderly: too much or too little, what to do? A new assessment system: fit for the aged (FORTA). (In German) Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008;133:2289-91. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1091275.

204. Wehling M. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy: how to reduce the harmful drug load and yet add needed drugs in the elderly? Proposal of a new drug classification: fit for the aged. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:560-1. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02131.x.

205. Kuhn-Thiel AM, Weiss C, Wehling M. Consensus validation of the FORTA (Fit fOR The Aged) List: a clinical tool for increasing the appropriateness of pharmacotherapy in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 2014;31:131-40. doi:10.1007/s40266-013-0146-0.

206. Pazan F, Weiss C, Wehling M. The FORTA (Fit fOR The Aged) list 2018: third version of a validated clinical tool for improved drug treatment in older people. Drugs Aging. 2019;36:481-4. doi:10.1007/s40266-019-00669-6.

207. Michalek C, Wehling M, Schlitzer J, Frohnhofen H. Effects of “Fit fOR The Aged” (FORTA) on pharmacotherapy and clinical endpoints — a pilot randomized controlled study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;70:1261-7. doi:10.1007/s00228-014-1731-9.

208. Wehling M, Burkhardt H, Kuhn-Thiel AM, et al. VALFORTA — a randomized trial to validate the FORTA (“Fit fOR The Aged”) classification. Age Ageing. 2016;45:262-7. doi:10.1093/ageing/afv200.

209. Pazan F, Burkhardt H, Frohnhofen H, et al. Changes in prescription patterns in older hospitalized patients: the impact of FORTA on disease-related over- and under-treatments. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018;74:339-47. doi:10.1007/s00228-017-2383-3.

210. Wehling M, Collins R, Gil VM, et al. Appropriateness of oral anticoagulants for the long-term treatment of atrial fibrillation in older people. Results of an Evidence-Based Review and International Consensus Validation Process (OAC-FORTA 2016). Drugs Aging. 2017;34:499-507. doi:10.1007/s40266-017-0466-6.

211. Pazan F, Collins R, Gil VM, et al. A Structured Literature Review and International Consensus Validation of FORTA Labels of Oral Anticoagulants for Long-Term Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Patients (OAC-FORTA 2019). Drugs Aging. 2020;37:539-48. doi:10.1007/s40266-020-00771-0.

212. Halvorsen S, Andreotti F, ten Berg JM, et al. Aspirin therapy in primary cardiovascular disease prevention: a position paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:319-27. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.049.

213. Steg PG, Huber K, Andreotti F, et al. Bleeding in acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions: position paper by the Working Group on Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1854-64. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr204.

214. Flynn R, Doney A. Antithrombotic medicines following intracerebral haemorrhage: where's the evidence? Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2011;2:205-11. doi:10.1177/2042098611415457.

215. Andreotti F, Crea F. Defining the role of left atrial appendage closure in atrial fibrillation. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013;66:79-82. doi:10.1016/j.rec.2012.09.011.


Для цитирования:


Ткачева О.Н., Воробьёва Н.М., Котовская Ю.В., Рунихина Н.К., Стражеско И.Д., Виллевальде С.В., Драпкина О.М., Комаров А.Л., Орлова Я.А., Панченко Е.П., Погосова Н.В., Фролова Е.В., Явелов И.С. Антитромботическая терапия в пожилом и старческом возрасте: согласованное мнение экспертов Российской ассоциации геронтологов и гериатров и Национального общества профилактической кардиологии. Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика. 2021;20(3):2847. https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-2847

For citation:


Tkacheva O.N., Vorobyeva N.M., Kotovskaya Yu.V., Runikhina N.K., Strazhesco I.D., Villevalde S.V., Drapkina O.M., Komarov A.L., Orlova Ya.A., Panchenko E.P., Pogosova N.V., Frolova E.V., Yavelov I.S. Antithrombotic therapy in the elderly and senile age: the consensus opinion of experts of the Russian Association of Gerontologists and Geriatricians and the National Society of Preventive Cardiology. Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2021;20(3):2847. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2021-2847

Просмотров: 278


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1728-8800 (Print)
ISSN 2619-0125 (Online)